-between 10,000 and 80,400 people were sacrificed over the course of four days for the dedication of the Great Pyramid in 1487 -Every sacrifice had to be meticulously planned from the type of victim to specific ceremony needed for the god. The sacrificial victims were usually warriors but sometimes slaves, depending upon the god and needed ritual. The higher the rank of the warrior the better he is looked at as a sacrifice. The victim(s) would then take on the persona of the god he was to be sacrificed for. The victim(s) would be housed, fed, and dressed accordingly. This process could last up to a year. When the sacrificial day arrived, the victim(s) would participate in the specific ceremonies of the god. These ceremonies were used to exhaust the victim so that he would not struggle during the ceremony. Then five priests, known as the Tlenamacac, performed the sacrifice usually at the top of a pyramid. The victim would be laid upon the table, held down and then have his heart cut out. -The Aztec gods and goddesses also required the living hearts of humans for nourishment. All hearts were good, but the bravest captives were considered to be particularly nourishing to the Aztec gods. As a result, widespread warring took place as the Aztec people sought to bring captives back to the Aztec temples for sacrifice. -Sometimes, those practicing the Aztec religion sacrificed just one person. At other times, hundreds or even thousands of captives were sacrificed at a time. Each Aztec sacrifice, however, took place the same way. The captive or captives were taken to a pyramid or temple and placed on an altar. The Aztec priest then made an incision in the ribcage of the captive and removed the living heart. The heart was then burned and the corpse was pushed down the steps of the Aztec pyramid or temple. If the captive was particularly noble or brave, however, he was carried down instead. In the case of an Aztec human sacrifice being performed for the god Huehueteotl, the ritual was slightly changed. Huehueteotl was the Aztec god of warmth, death, and cold. He was responsible for light in the darkness and for food during times of famine. As a part of the Aztec religion, special sacrifices were held for Huehueteotl. The victim was first thrown into a fire, and then pulled back out with hooks before being dying. The living heart was then removed and thrown back to the fire. Aztec human sacrifices and bloodletting were important aspects of the Aztec religion, as they believed it brought balance and peace to the world around them. The Aztec daily life was quite simple. In fact, Aztec family life was very similar to many modern day cultures. For example, the husband was primarily responsible for supporting the family and the wife’s role was to provide the family with clothing and food. As such, the Aztec daily life for many of the men was to farm or engage in craftwork. The female Aztec life, on the other hand, mainly consisted of weaving and cooking. -A part of the religious Aztec legends is the belief in a hierarchy of gods. According to Aztec mythology, the top three gods were Huitzilopochtili (or “hummingbird wizard), Tezcatlipoca (“smoking mirror”) and Quetzalcoatl (“sovereign plumed serpent”). Below these three gods, those who practiced the Aztec religion believed there were four sub-gods and an infinite number of gods were below these four. Among them were the god of rain and the god of growth. -Aztec sacrifices were an important aspect of the Aztec religion. At the root of these Aztec rituals was the belief that the gods needed to be nourished by human beings. This was accomplished through human blood. A part of the Aztec religion, therefore, was to participate in bloodletting, which is intentionally harming and drawing blood from the body. Those who were higher in status within the Aztec religion were expected to give the most blood during these Aztec rituals. -Warriors were highly regarded in the Aztec culture. They were responsible for going out and finding and capturing the majority of the sacrifices used to appease their gods. As a result, a special god was included in the Aztec religion to honor the warriors. This god, Camaxtli, was the god of war, hunting, fire, and fate. He was thought to have invented fire and to have made the Earth. The Aztecs believed that Camaxtli lead both warriors slain in battle and human sacrifices to the eastern sky. According to the Aztec religion, they then became stars in the sky. --The cities of the Aztec empire were always wanting to make their sacrificial temple better than any other cities. They decided not to destroy the old temple, but to build over it! They made temples larger, more extravagant, and more pleasing to the eye with each new layer. In addition, the temples had more steps, more decorations, and a larger sacrificial area. (These temples look a lot like the great Egyptian pyramids except they do not have a pointed top. Instead, they have a flat top with two small compartments where the sacrifices were held) In a rare find, archaeologists found a temple which was built over six times! Each new temple was more magnificent than the others. -The life of Aztec warriors was one of constant battle. The primary purpose for this continual Aztec warfare was to take prisoners to be sacrificed to their gods. As the Aztec empire expanded, however, another major purpose of Aztec wars was to expand the size and power of the empire.

Becoming an Aztec Warrior Young Aztec men became warriors at the young age of 17. Aztec warriors were expected to be brave and noble. Yet, both free commoners and nobility underwent military training. Those who were of noble lineage, however, also received training in religion, politics, or history by the priests. The priests, too, engaged in warfare, as the overall purpose of the Aztec warriors was to serve and pay respect to the gods. The pride the Aztecs felt in warfare was even made evident by their system of government, which required new rulers to prove themselves first on the battlefield.

The Jaguar and Eagle Aztec Warriors Those Aztec warriors who demonstrated the most bravery and who fought well became either jaguar or eagle warriors. Of all of the Aztec warriors, they were the most feared. Both the jaguar and eagle Aztec warriors wore distinguishing helmets and uniforms. The jaguars were identifiable by the jaguar skins they wore over their entire body, with only their faces showing from within the jaguar head. The eagle Aztec warriors, on the other hand, wore feathered helmets including an open beak.

Aztec Weapons and Dress The Aztec warriors carried a variety of weapons, including stabbing javelins, wooden spears, ob sidian knives, and clubs. In addition, they flung firestones at their enemies using slings made of wool. Most of the Aztec weapons were actually designed to stun and capture opponents rather than to kill them. In this way, opponents could be easily brought back to the temple for sacrifice. To protect themselves, Aztec warriors used round shields, which they fringed with feathers. The remainder of the costumes worn was dependent upon military ranking of the Aztec warrior.

Military Ranking of Aztec Warriors Aztec warriors could move up in ranking by capturing enemies. After capturing four enemies, they were eligible to become either a jaguar or eagle Aztec warrior knight. These military orders were primarily comprised of nobility. Warriors who were of a commoner background, however, could enter into the ranks of nobility by capturing enemy warriors. But, this form of promotion was uncommon. In addition, there were two orders of Aztec warriors, otontin and cuahchicqueh. These Aztec warriors were considered to be elite and vowed to never retreat from battle. -The Aztec daily life was quite simple. In fact, Aztec family life was very similar to many modern day cultures. For example, the husband was primarily responsible for supporting the family and the wife’s role was to provide the family with clothing and food. As such, the Aztec daily life for many of the men was to farm or engage in craftwork. The female Aztec life, on the other hand, mainly consisted of weaving and cooking. 

Most Aztec households included the husband and wife and their unmarried children. In addition, many of the husband’s relatives lived with in the home. The Aztec daily life was filled with work. Every member of the household, including children, helped in the household. Many also created goods that could be used by the empire in trade for goods that were highly valued in the Aztec culture, such as Jaguar skins.

Education was important to the Aztec people. Fathers were responsible for educating the boys in the family until they reached the age of 10. After this age, the boys were educated in a school connected with a temple. These schools taught religion and provided military training. Girls sometimes attended these schools, as well. Otherwise, they stayed at home and learned household skills important to daily life from their mothers. -Development of Tools and Weapons The Aztecs had no iron or bronze with which to make their tools and weapons. Therefore, the ancient Aztec people had to develop a means for creating effective tools and weapons without the benefit of these metals. For this reason, many Aztec tools were made with ob sidian and chert. Near the time they were overcome by Spanish conquistadors, advances in Aztec technology had lead to the experimentation of making tools with copper. Axe blades, for example, were being made with either stone or copper. Aztec technology was so advanced that they even made drills, which were made of reed or bone.

The Aztecs also made a variety of weapons. One weapon, the atlatl, made it easier to throw a spear. In addition, this weapon was used to aid in fishing. The Aztecs also used a macuahuitl, which was a wooden club containing sharp pieces of volcanic glass, or obsidian. This weapon was used to disable an enemy or opponent without killing him. In addition, the Aztecs utilized bows and arrows.

Aztec Technology and Transportation Aztec technology had advanced in such a way that they were familiar with the wheel. The wheel was, however, only used in toys. In addition, the Aztecs did not have horses, mules or other beasts of burden. Therefore, they developed dugout canoes with which they transported themselves and their goods throughout the many canals, lakes, and waterways found in the Valley of Mexico.

Aztec Technology and Education Aztec education was an important part of their culture. The Aztecs were very advanced scientific thinkers and mathematicians. The Aztec number system was far more advanced than other cultures at the time. In addition, Aztec science relied heavily on math, such as the design of their calendar. Aztec astronomy was also an important component of their calendar, which reflected heavily on their gods.

The Aztecs were also advanced in the development of medicine. In fact, Aztec medicine was found in many forms, such as ointments, drinks, and salves. This spectacular area of Aztec technology has been recorded in the Badianus Manuscript, which was created by Aztec artists in 1552 -Food and Drink

Maize, a type of corn, was the Aztec's main food source. The Aztecs also ate tomatoes, avocados, atole (a type of porridge), tortillas made from maize, and tamales, a kind of envelope made from steamed maize stuffed with vegetables or meat.

Aztecs also ate chocolate. In their culture chocolate was reserved for warriors and nobility. A drink of cacao mixed with ground maize was believed to provide stamina and was used in sacred rituals. Chocolate was a drink for the elite.

The Aztecs ate twice a day and the main meal was eaten during the hottest part of the day. Some of the edible things available in an Aztec market were fruit, vegetables, spices, flowers, edible dogs, and birds.

The Aztecs had an alcoholic drink called octli. An octli gatherer would take the sap out of the maguey plant and put it in a large jug. Then they would let the sap rot and then they would drink it. Octli was reserved strictly for nobles, royalty, and warriors. Any nobleman who abused (got drunk from) the divine drink of the Aztecs would be put to death. A good vendor of maguey sap boiled it until it was like honey, while a bad vendor would water it down. -The Tlatoani, or the Great Speaker, had many duties in the political situation. He was the head of the law courts, priesthood, and the army. He would also speak to the Aztec gods. The Aztecs had harsh punishments. The criminals were taken to a court where there was a group of judges who would decide the punishment if he was guilty. Sometimes the emperor would pronounce the sentence. In this way the Aztec judicial system was somewhat like ours today. The emperor would act as a judge and specially chosen members of the community would act as a jury.

CrimeBVMvdx npxflxxckbcl, Punishment adultery death commoner found wearing cotton clothes death cutting down a living tree death drunkenness 1st offense -head shaved, house destroyed 2nd offense - death handling stolen property sold into slavery moving a field boundry death kidnapping sold into slavery selling substandard goods loss of property major theft death minor theft sold into slavery treason death, loss of property, destruction of land,children sold into slavery

One of the ways that the Mayan peoples competed against each other was by playing what has been called the Ball Game. They used a rubber

ball, about 20 inches in diameter, to play the Game, which was played on a stone "court" whose measurements varied. (The largest one found so far measures 459 feet by 114 feet.) The court had walls that sloped inward, and hanging high on the walls were stone rings.

The goal of the game was to pass the ball around, without having it touch your hands, and then get the ball to pass through one of the rings. Since the rings were so high and players were not allowed to use their hands, it was extremely difficult to get the ball through a ring. In fact, when a player did manage to get a ball through a ring, that usually ended the game. The game ended otherwise when the ball touched the ground.

The Mayan Ball Game was a solemn experience, filled with ritual importance. Religious leaders attended, as did most chieftains and other government leaders. Sacred songs were sung and played. Other religious activities took place as well.

The winners of the game were treated as heroes and given a great feast. The penalty for losing a game was unusually harsh[url=http: death. The leader of the team who lost the game was killed. This fit in with the Mayan belief that human sacrifice was necessary for the continued success of the peoples' agriculture, trade, and overall health. The game was like games and sports that people play today in a few ways: • The players were working as a team to beat another team of players • The goal was to get the ball through a hoop • The goal was also NOT to touch the ball with one's hands, like soccer is today. • Huge structures were built just for playing • The games attracted very large numbers of people to watch • Gambling on who would win was common Graphics courtesy of ClipArt//ifmlsqxmxumi.com

The Aztec Board Game

Another of the popular Aztec games was Patolli/]ifmlsqxmxumi[/url], [link=http://uyfixbbxtjju. This game was played on a rock table in the shape of a crosscom/]uyfixbbxtjju[/link], http://oocakiizwuyj. Each of the four extremes of the cross had cells or spaces. The first player to make it around the board was the winner. Beans with marks symbolizing numbers were used as dice for the game. Because Aztec games were so important to Aztec culture and religion, participants typically prayed beforehand.

The Aztec language was part of a larger group of Indiana languages. Other languages included in the same group as the Aztec language are Pima, Comanche, and Shoshone. Aztec writing was not developed enough to express complete ideas or expressions. In fact, Aztec letters were made primarily by drawing or carving a variety of ancient Aztec symbols in the form of hieroglyphs, or glyphs for short. For example, a hill and a snake were used to represent the town of Coatepec because the word for “snake” in the Aztec language was “coatl” and the word for “hill” was “tepetl.” Since combining these words sounded similar to the word Coatepec, the two pictures were used together to represent the name of the town. Despite the fact that the Aztec alphabet was not fully developed, poetry was an important aspect of the culture. In fact, Aztec poetry was referred to as “flower and song” because these were metaphors for art and symbolism. As early as 600AD, languages known as Nahuan were spoken by peoples in the area. It is believed that these language speakers came from the north in waves, settling in central Mexico. Speakers of languages such as Nahuatl (the Aztec language) began to gain power, and by 1000AD (CE) it is likely that Nahuatl speakers were the dominant power.

The Aztec language was called N'ahuatl. The Aztecs developed a system of pictures which they used as sort of an alphabet. They had hundreds of different symbols to use in their vocabulary. Nouns were easy to draw - they drew a cat as a cat and drew a fish as a fish and so on. They joined them together to form sentences, and used them to write down stories and keep records. Words that joined the nouns into sentences were extremely difficult to draw. The art of writing was very specialized and also difficult to learn. Scribes needed to know a lot of extra information that wasn't written down because the pictograms only gave a clue to the full meaning. Aztec picture writing was mainly done by priest or scribes. They were the only ones who could read the pictures. The Aztecs wrote about their history and religious ceremonies. They also wrote poetry. First the scribes sketched the outline with charcoal. The pictures were then brightly colored with vegetables, minerals, insects and shells. Aztecs also had books called Codices. The books were long strips of paper that folded like an accordian. At each end of the strip was a piece of wood that would act as a cover. Both sides of the paper were written on and it could be read top to bottom or left to right. They were normally 20 centimeters wide and 50 meters long. They were made from deerskin or tree bark. Aztec Food Maize was the Aztec’s main food source. Some of the other thing that they ate were tomatoes, avocados, atole (a type of porridge), tortillas made from maize, and tamales, a kind of envelope made from steamed maize stuffed with vegetables or meat. For warriors and nobility, their best food was chocolate. Cocoa and maize mixed with water was believed to provide stamina. The Aztec’s had meals twice a day. In the market, the edible things that they sold included fruit, vegetables, spices, flowers, edible dogs, and birds. The Aztec’s also drank alcohol in the form of octli. To get the octli someone would take the sap out of the maguey plant and put it in a large jug. Then they would let the sap rot and eventually drink it. Octli was only for nobles, royalty, and warriors. Any nobleman who got drunk from the divine drink of the Aztecs would be put to death.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Some of some other foods were salt and chilies. Beans and pigweed were also very important

Other Aztec Foods Some of these foods were salt, as well as chilies. During fasting, the Aztecs would refrain from eating either one of these things. Beans were also very important to the Aztecs, and also enjoyed eating pigweed as well as chia. When these foods were combined with maize, it would have given the typical Aztec a very healthy diet, which contained all the nutrients they needed. Nixtamalization is the method in which maize would be processed, and the maize would often be cooked in an alkaline substance. When this was done, it greatly enhanced its nutritional value.

Aztec Drinks

As far as drinks are concerned, water played an important role among the Aztecs, as it does with all humans. In addition to this, the Aztecs also drunk the fermented juice which comes from the century plant, and they also enjoy drinking pulque. Beyond water, these drinks were very common, and there were a number of alcoholic beverages available which were made from fuits, cacti, and honey. There were times when even children were allowed to drink, though this was not done regularly. Intoxication was not admired by the Aztecs, and with the exception of seniors, anyone else who became drunk could be subjected to harsh punishments.

Strangely enough, the Aztec nobility had strict rules which stopped them from drinking. If they became drunk, the punishment could be as severe as execution. The nobility also didn't drink pulque, as they considered this to be a drink of the common man. They elite instead liked to drink anything which came from cacao. This drink was highly prized, and it was consumed by warriors, kings, and nobles. They would often ad chili peppers to it to give it a bit of flavor. Honey was often used in cacao as well, but the list of herbs that could be used are very numerous.

Cacao was so prized in the Aztec empire that the beans from it could be used as a form of money. It should also be noted that the Aztecs enjoyed turkey, various types of fowl, and they also feasted on iguanas and gophers. Shrimp and fish was an important part of their diet, and they also enjoyed both insects and their eggs as a part of their Aztec food. Like the food common to modern day Mexico, Aztec food tended to be both rich and spicy. In fact, many of the ancient Aztec foods were flavored with chili peppers and contained spicy sauces. In addition, the main food of the Aztecs was the tlaxcalli, which was a corn-meal pancake similar to the modern day tortilla. This primary Aztec food was commonly wrapped around meat and vegetables in order to make tacos.

Aztec Meats Many Aztec other recipes included meat. Most of the meat added to Aztec foods was gained through hunting, such as geese, ducks, deer, and rabbits. In fact, the Aztecs only raised two animals for meat: dogs and turkeys.

Aztec Fruits and Vegetables Fruits and vegetables provided a strong base for many Aztec foods. The most important of these vegetables was maize because of its ease of growth in the soil and climate of the area. For this reason, maize was used to make a wide variety of other Aztec foods. For example, maize was used to make tortilla shells. Learning how to make tortilla shells was one of the primary rights of passage for young Aztec women. Tortillas were particularly useful because they could be eaten fresh or they could be stored to be eaten later, which was valuable for traveling warriors and merchants.

Xoars were also made with a maize base. This meal was made from maize dough, which was shaped into a ball. This was then filled with chilies, beans, and sometimes meat. The entire ball was wrapped in maize leaves and cooked through a steaming process in side a clay pot.

Atole, which was a thin gruel made of maize flour flavored with fruits and chilies, was another common meal.

A special soup called pozole also contained large kernels of maize and, of course, another of the Aztec foods was simply corn on the cob. Maize was so important in the Aztec culture that it was even an important component of their religion.

Beans were also served with every Aztec meal. Other fruits and vegetables common to the Aztec diet included avocados, tomatoes and squash.

Aztec Chocolate History The Aztec’s had a passion for chocolate. In fact, one of the most sought after Aztec foods was actually a drink made of chocolate. Though the chocolate drink was a favorite treat of the Aztecs, only the wealthy were able to drink it often. Another common Aztec drink was the octli, which was made from the juice of maguey plants. This tasty drink was a commonly used when dining.

Cattle and other large meat-producing animals were introduced to the Americas by the European conquerors, and meat was therefore a luxury for the ordinary family in Aztec times. Fortunately Mexico is a land rich in vegetable foods and these formed the main items on the everyday menu. The preparation of maize was a daily task for the housewife, and even now in country parts of Mexico it still occupies up to six hours of a woman's day. The kernels were steeped in lime overnight to loosen the hull, then boiled and skinned, and finally ground to flour by crushing between a grooved stone roller and a metate (a stone slab standing on three little legs). The maize was usually made into tortillas, thin round cakes of unleavened meal baked on flat clay griddles about a foot in diameter. Tortillas become dry and inedible after a few hours and were accordingly made fresh for each meal. The daily ration for a three-year-old child was half a tortilla, and the amount was gradually increased until a five-year-old had a whole tortilla to himself and by the age of I3 3 was eating two per day. Maize was also made into a sort of porridge called atole which was seasoned with pimento or sweetened with either honey or a syrup made from the sap of the maguey plant. Another favorite dish was tamales, envelopes of steamed maize stuffed with savory vegetables or meat. Sahagun lists more than 40 different shapes and fillings, and some of the recipes are unexpected, to say the least. The tamales filled with mushrooms, fruit, fish, rabbit, beans, turkey eggs, or green and red peppers are appetizing enough, but the European stomach quails at the thought of some of the others, the frog tamales, for example, or those containing snails, beeswax, tadpoles, or axolotls (an immature form of salamander which looks rather like a newt). Tenochtitlan was a lakeside city, and from the time of their arrival in the swamps, when poverty compelled them to eat anything they could get, the Mexicans had consumed all kinds of water creatures. Fish were an important source of protein, but shrimps and the larvae of water flies were also collected, and insect eggs were skimmed from the surface and eaten like caviar. Things of this sort were the food of the poor and a standby in times of shortage, but some of the items were also regarded as delicacies. Axolotls with yellow peppers were a dish fit for the ruler's table. Grubs were extracted from the fleshy leaves of the maguey cactus, and at certain times of the year the Mexicans collected a species of ant which becomes swollen with honey. The farmers grew every sort of fruit, as well as tomatoes, amaranth, sage, avocados, and several varieties of beans. The Mexicans also gathered mushrooms, wild fruits, and all kinds of greenstuff. The lake abounded in waterfowl, and if a hunter were lucky he might bring home a deer or a peccary, though his bag was more likely to be a rabbit, a hare, a gopher, or a pigeon. The Aztecs despised the Otomi of the hill country who ate 'unclean' creatures like lizards, rats, and snakes. The only domestic sources of meat were turkeys and the edible dogs which were specially fattened for the table by forced feeding, and were of a hairless breed which is now almost extinct. They were unable to bark, and the Spanish chronicler, Father Clavigero, describes them as 'sad-faced and uncom- plaining, even when beaten'. For the farmer and the city workman poultry or dog flesh was a luxury to be eaten only on special occasions. The family generally rose at dawn and worked without eating until about ten o'clock when it was time for the first meal, which for the common man was usually no more than a dish of maize porridge.

Jogos Gratis

Coolyo’s Stuff

The capital city of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan, now the site of modern-day Mexico City. Built on a series of islets in Lake Texcoco, the city plan was based on a symmetrical layout that was divided into four city sections called campans. The city was interlaced with canals which were useful for transportation. Tenochtitlan was built according to a fixed plan and centered on the ritual precinct, where the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan rose 50 m above the city. Houses were made of wood and loam, roofs were made of reed,[20] although pyramids, temples and palaces were generally made of stone. Around the island, chinampa beds were used to grow foodstuffs as well as, over time, to increase the size of the island. Chinampas, misnamed "floating gardens", were long raised plant beds set upon the shallow lake bottom. They were a very efficient agricultural system and could provide up to seven crops a year. On the basis of current chinampa yields, it has been estimated that 1 hectare of chinampa would feed 20 individuals and 9,000 hectares of chinampas could feed 180,000.[21] Anthropologist Eduardo Noguera estimates the population at 200,000 based in the house count and merging the population of Tlatelolco (once an independent city, but later became a suburb of Tenochtitlan). If one includes the surrounding islets and shores surrounding Lake Texcoco, estimates range from 300,000 to 700,000 inhabitants.com/

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